Several researchers stated that beliefs are at the heart of teaching (Kagan, 1992). Beliefs are also the hardest to change and are formed early in life often before students enter college. This poses a problem for preservice teacher programs that must address the development of teaching practices which engages a teacher's beliefs. According to Nespor (1987)beliefs only change when there is a "conversion or gestalt shift". Ertmer (2005) believes there are three strategies for promoting change in teacher beliefs about teaching practices and technology: (1) personal experiences, (2) vicarious experiences, and (3) social-cultural influences (p.32).
If you want a good book to read that exposes some of the historical efforts made towards integrating technology pick up "Oversold & Underused:Computers in the classroom by Larry Cuban (2001). Much has changed since his book was written but it plants the foundation for where America's schools have been, how far some have come, and where we need to go. I must get back to writing that paper!